Tin Production and Refinement

Manufacturing of tin requires the extraction of tin from its ore, which is casseterite. In the manufacturing process, there are many many other materials used including limestone, silica and salt. The caseterrite ore is first purified to take out the chemical and physical impurities. Within this process, the ore is undergone a vibrating chamber to remove the physical as well as the chemical impurities. Following this, the ore is made more concentrated through the addition of a number of chemicals. Because ore gets more concentrated, it floats to the peak of the chamber where it can be collected.

The tin that's collected in this way isn't 100% pure. It's around 80% pure. The 80% pure tin will then be afflicted by a process where it becomes 95% pure. Within this purification process, some magnetic force is used towards the tin, which removes the iron particles from the tin.

Then this tin is exposed to an activity called smelting. On this smelting process, the concentrated tin is combined with carbon and heated in a furnace to about 1400 degree centigrade. With this heating process, limestone and silica are added to the mix of tin and carbon. This can be done to remove any more impurities present in the tin.


At the conclusion of the smelting process, the tin obtained is crude tin. This crude tin will then be agitated with steam through this method the impurities get collected towards the top and is removed manually. The tin that's now obtained is 99.8% pure.

There isn't any useful byproducts obtained as a result of the manufacturing process. Waste materials range from the sand, stone and soil which can be rejected through the mining and smelting process. The slag produced during the smelting and refining process contains arsenic, lead along with other poisonous materials which might be damaging to the surroundings. But tin itself is not harmful to the environment.

The application of tin for commercial purposes is on the rise and will carry on and rise. As materials like cadmium and lead are harmful and poisonous, work is on replace these materials with tin. From the soldering process, lead and tin combined was utilized as the solder. Now efforts are underway to replace this combination with tin and silver as being a solder. In shotgun shells, lead shots are slowly getting substituted for tin shots. Thus due to positive environmental connection between tin, it is slowly replacing the damaging materials such as lead and graphite.

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